Pursuant to the Government's report on environmental protection tasks in 2020, the annual average concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 in Hanoi for the period of 2018-2020 far exceeded the permissible limit while the average concentration of PM2.5 in Ho Chi Minh City has not changed negligibly.
Dust pollution in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi with a very high concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 fine dust in industrial areas is always one of the current hot issues.
Regarding to water environment, water pollution has been mostly recorded in the Northern river basins of Nhue, Day and Cau; Dong Nai river basin in the Southern region and Central river basins. As for the Saigon river basin, water pollution has occurred in Tan Hoa- Lo Gom Canal, Tau Hu- Ben Nghe Canal and Tham Luong- Ben Cat- Vam Thuat Canal with its parametric value exceeding the national technical standards for surface water quality.
Wastewater from urban centers, residential areas, business facilities has not been treated before being discharged into the environment, polluting canals and rivers.
In three recent years, high saltwater intrusion has constantly occurred in river mouths, especially in the downstream Vu Gia - Thu Bon river basin, Vam Co River and other riverbanks in the Southern region impacting on water quality, production activities and people’s life. Additionally, high tides often happen in the Southern urban areas and Ho Chi Minh City.
As for the land quality, land degradation and landslides in the mountainous area tend to increase in both quantity and scale, affecting people's lives and production activities.